International Association for
Relativistic Dynamics

IARD 2020

The 12th Biennial Conference on Classical and Quantum Relativistic Dynamics of Particles and Fields

Helium as a major portion of the dark matter and the cell structure of the universe

Netsivi Ben-Amots


One of the unsolved problems in physics is called dark matter. It should be called non-shining matter or invisible matter in order to include transparent matter. We will review the discovery of the dark matter and various explanations, some of which state that dark matter consists of baryons. In this paper we will discuss the possibility of He as the transparent matter, including claims against and in favor of this idea and various implications, particularly on the evolution of galaxies, galaxy clusters, galaxy superclusters and the large cell structure of the universe. This necessitates a few paradigm shifts regarding the big bang, the black holes, rotation and more. We explain the contradictions in the paradigms accepted at present before deriving the new substitute paradigms suggested in this paper. The big-bang theory is replaced with a relativistic expansion of the universe that increases the calculated time since the cosmic microwave background radiation about six times. Quasars and supermassive active galactic nuclei were and are additional factories that produce helium and disperse it in huge jets. Together these phenomena enable the production of helium in sufficient amounts to be the long time sought for transparent matter which is erroneously called dark matter. As a result, new explanations are obtained for the cell structure of the universe, the structure of galaxies and galaxy clusters, and for their evolution.


Netsivi Ben-Amots was born in Tel-Aviv in 1941. He is a graduate of the Technion - Israel Institute for Technology, Haifa, Israel, where he got his B.Sc. in Mechanical engineering in 1963, M.Sc. in Mechanics in 1969 (thesis subject - The dynamical behaviour of a rotor on a belt suspension drive), and D.Sc. in Mechanics in 1976 (thesis subject - The motion of a high-speed rotor under the influence of a moment perpendicular to the axes of precession and nutation). Dr. Ben-Amots was invited in 1990 to the Faculty of Physics in the Technion by Professor Nathan Rosen (A student and co-author of Albert Einstein and the founder of the Faculties of Physics at the Technion, Haifa, and Ben-Gurion University in Beer-Sheva). Dr. Ben-Amots was a guest of the Faculty of Physics at the Technion for two years, in which he learned relativity and astrophysics. Dr. Ben-Amots lives in Haifa, Israel. He is a member of the standing committee of IARD - International Association for Relativistic Dynamics from the year 2000. Dr. Ben-Amots's professional activities included mechanical engineering and software development. His expertise includes dynamics, rotations, computerized simulation, and computer programming