Lee M Hively1 and Martin Land2
1Oak Ridge National Laboratory (retired)
Classical electrodynamics (CED) gauges away the irrotational component of the vector potential (A), contrary to experiments. Falsifiability states that a hypothesis (theory) cannot be proved by favorable evidence, but can only be disproved by contrary evidence. CED fails on the basis of theory (gauging away the irrotational vector potential, contrary to the Helmholtz theorem) and on the basis of experiment (measurement of an irrotational vector potential). These failures motivate extended electrodynamics (EED). EED is provably unique, is gauge free, conserves charge on classical time scales, and preserves all of the transverse fields and waves in CED. EED modifies only the irrotational (longitudinal) components of current density, vector potential, and electric field, along with prediction of a dynamical scalar field (C), which is set to zero as the Lorenz gauge under CED. EED makes several novel predictions: (i) a scalar-longitudinal wave (SLW) with an electric field parallel to the direction of propagation together with the scalar field (C) that carries both energy and momentum; (ii) a propagating scalar wave (C) that carries only energy; (iii) new terms in the energy and momentum balance equations; and (iv) new media-interface matching conditions that correct inconsistencies under CED. Preliminary experiments are consistent with the EED predictions for the SLW. EED is shown to be equivalent to SHP theory when the electric and magnetic three-vector fields are independent of the historical time .
Lee Hively received B.S. degrees in Engineering Science and in Mathematics, and a B.A. degree in General Arts and Sciences from the Pennsylvania State University; an M.S. degree in Physics from University of Illinois; and a Ph.D. degree in Nuclear Engineering from University of Illinois. He was a research staff member at the Western Electric Company's Engineering Research Center (Princeton, New Jersey), where his work involved prototypical fabrication of millimeter waveguide. He worked at the Fusion Engineering Design Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on controlled-fusion reactor design and performance. Subsequent work at ORNL as a Senior Scientist has included health and safety research, program management, nuclear criticality safety and shielding, and forewarning of biomedical events and equipment failures by nonlinear analysis of real, noisy data. Recent work involves extended electrodynamics. His work has resulted in 19 U.S. and international patents.